Journal of Sleep Sciences 2017. 2(1-2):28-33.

Effect of a Sleep Hygiene Education Program on Sleep Problems in Female Nurses on Shift Work
Zohreh Yazdi, Shabnam Jalilolghadr, Farid Tootoonchian


Background and Objective: Sleep condition of nurses is important because it may affect providing healthcare services by them. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a sleep hygiene course in nurses suffering from sleep disorders.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among nurses with clinical insomnia. The nurses were randomly divided into intervention (50 nurses) and control (50 nurses) groups. For nurses in the intervention group, a 2-hour training session was held about sleep hygiene practices. 1 month after the intervention, the Persian versions of Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI) questionnaire were completed by all participants. Data were analyzed using t test.

Results: All nurses were female, and their mean age was 29.8 ± 3.2 years. After the intervention, sleep latency was 15.5 ± 8.8 and 35.7 ± 19.7 minute in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Total sleep duration per day was 462.6 ± 21.4 and 436.8 ± 18.8 minute in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Total PSQI score (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.0 ± 1.2, P = 0.003), ISI (9.3 ± 1.2 vs. 15.3 ± 2.7, P < 0.001), and ESS (7.6 ± 1.3 vs. 10.6 ± 1.6, P < 0.001) in the intervention group were significantly lower than control group.

Conclusion: Sleep hygiene education consisted of a 2-hour session, and an educational brochure improved sleep problems in shift work nurses.


Sleep; Nurses; Insomnia; Sleep hygiene; Shift work schedule

Full Text:



Di Milia L, Waage S, Pallesen S, et al. Shift work disorder in a random population sample--prevalence and comorbidities. PLoS One 2013; 8: e55306.

Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Yazdi Z. Fatigue man-agement in the workplace. Ind Psychiatry J 2015; 24: 12-7.

Akerstedt T. Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occup Med (Lond) 2003; 53: 89-94.

Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Yazdi Z, Jahanihash-emi H, et al. The effect of bright light on sleepiness among rapid-rotating 12-hour shift workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 2011; 37: 77-9.

Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B, Mageroy N, et al. Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work. Scand J Work Environ Health 2010; 36: 109-20.

Sallinen M, Kecklund G. Shift work, sleep, and sleepiness-differences between shift schedules and sys-tems. Scand J Work Environ Health 2010; 36: 121-33.

Drake CL, Roehrs T, Richardson G, et al. Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences be-yond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 2004; 27: 1453-62.

Ohayon MM, Lemoine P, Arnaud-Briant V, et al. Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population. J Psychosom Res 2002; 53: 577-83.

Tan E, Healey D, Gray AR, et al. Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with prob-lematic sleep: A before-after pilot study. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 189.

Ursin R, Baste V, Moen BE. Sleep duration and sleep-related problems in different occupations in the Hordaland Health Study. Scand J Work Environ Health 2009; 35: 193-202.

Nishinoue N, Takano T, Kaku A, et al. Effects of sleep hygiene education and behavioral therapy on sleep quality of white-collar workers: A randomized controlled trial. Ind Health 2012; 50: 123-31.

Morin CM, Vallieres A, Guay B, et al. Cogni-tive behavioral therapy, singly and combined with medication, for persistent insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009; 301: 2005-15.

Golbasi Z, Kelleci M, Dogan S. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2008; 45: 1800-6.

Pino O, Rossini G. Perceived organizational stressors and interpersonal relationships as predictors of job satisfaction and well-being among hospital nurs-es. Int J Psychol Behav Sci 2012; 2: 196-207.

Mark G, Smith AP. Occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and the mental health of nurses. Br J Health Psychol 2012; 17: 505-21.

Xie Z, Wang A, Chen B. Nurse burnout and its association with occupational stress in a cross-sectional study in Shanghai. J Adv Nurs 2011; 67: 1537-46.

Aziz Zadeh Forouzi M, Tirgari B, Ranmanesh S, et al. Sleep quality and sleepiness in south east Ira-nian nurses. Journal of Research and Health 2014; 4: 649-59. [In Persian].

Ansari H, Noroozi M, Rezaei F, et al. Assess-ment of Sleep pattern among hospitals' nurses of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. J Raf-sanjan Univ Med Sci 2015; 13: 1021-32. [In Persian].

Kazemi M, Hosieni F, Rezaeian M, et al. Fac-tors associated with quality of sleep of nurses at Raf-sanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2013. J Occu Health Epidemiol 2015; 4: 26-33.

Kakinuma M, Takahashi M, Kato N, et al. Ef-fect of brief sleep hygiene education for workers of an information technology company. Ind Health 2010; 48: 758-65.

Kaku A, Nishinoue N, Takano T, et al. Ran-domized controlled trial on the effects of a combined sleep hygiene education and behavioral approach pro-gram on sleep quality in workers with insomnia. Ind Health 2012; 50: 52-9.

Yazdi Z, Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Zohal MA, et al. Validity and reliability of the Iranian version of the insomnia severity index. Malays J Med Sci 2012; 19: 31-6.

Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Montazeri A, Khajeh-Mehrizi A, et al. The insomnia severity index: Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of a Persian version. Qual Life Res 2014; 23: 533-7.

Bastien CH, Vallieres A, Morin CM. Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Med 2001; 2: 297-307.

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, et al. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989; 28: 193-213.

Farrahi Moghaddam J, Nakhaee N, Sheibani V, et al. Reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI-P). Sleep Breath 2012; 16: 79-82.

Sadeghniiat Haghighi K, Montazeri A, Khajeh Mehrizi A, et al. The Epworth sleepiness scale: Trans-lation and validation study of the Iranian version. Sleep Breath 2013; 17: 419-26.

Morin CM, Bootzin RR, Buysse DJ, et al. Psy-chological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: Up-date of the recent evidence (1998-2004). Sleep 2006; 29: 1398-414.

Edinger JD, Sampson WS. A primary care "friendly" cognitive behavioral insomnia therapy. Sleep 2003; 26: 177-82.

Suzuki E, Tsuchiya M, Hirokawa K, et al. Eval-uation of an internet-based self-help program for better quality of sleep among Japanese workers: A random-ized controlled trial. J Occup Health 2008; 50: 387-99.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.